Chair of
Multimedia Communications and Signal Processing
Prof. Dr.-Ing. André Kaup

Spatial filtering

Field of activity: Audio and Acoustic Signal Processing
Research topic: Acoustic Scene Analysis
Staff: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Walter Kellermann
M.Sc. Hendrik Barfuss
M.Sc. Michael Bürger
PhD Shmulik Markovich-Golan

 

 

For suppression of undesired interference and noise, beamforming with microphone arrays is very promising, since both temporal and spatial filtering is possible if desired sources and interferers are located at different spatial positions. Especially, adaptive signal-dependent beamformers play an important role since they optimally exploit the characteristics of desired signals, of interferers and of the acoustic environment. For resolving real-world problems, efficient combination of beamforming with complementary pre-processing methods, as e.g., acoustic echo cancellation and single-channel noise-reduction, is necessary. Integration of acoustic front-ends with automatic speech recognition becomes more and more important in many fields, as e.g., dictation systems, dialogue systems, or command-and-control applications.

Research focus

Applications

High-quality audio recordings
Home entertainment
Multimedia computers,
laptops, PDAs
Emergency services
Hearing aids
 

Beamforming with loudspeaker arrays

 

 

Microphone arrays have been successfully applied to spatial filtering problems. Due to the reciprocity principle of acoustics, the paradigm of microphone array technology can be reversed. The well-known theory for spatially selective sound capture can therefore be applied directly to spatially selective sound playback. Through appropriate signal processing of the input signals to the loudspeakers, these systems can in principle produce controlled regions of higher and lower signal levels in a three-dimensional space. It is important to note that beamforming with loudspeaker arrays has the additional problem of mutual acoustic coupling between loudspeakers. A few of the important applications of beamforming with loudspeaker arrays include use in home-entertainment systems, individual-specific sound playback in museums or public-address-systems.

The beamforming designs which are being considered here for loudspeaker arrays can be classified as data-independent beamforming designs. Within this class, two different categories are being considered:

  • Classical beamforming approaches such as delay-and-sum and filter-and-sum beamforming are robust in general, but have very little or no spatial selectivity at low frequencies if the aperture is small relative to the source wavelength.
  • Superdirective beamforming approaches overcome the problem of low spatial selectivity at low frequencies at the expense of extremely high sensitivity to small random errors as usually encountered in real-world applications.

MATLAB GUI for Robust Superdirective Beamforming

A MATLAB GUI for the design of robust superdirective beamformers according to Mabande et al. (ICASSP 2009), which allows for a tradeoff between a high spatial selectivity and sensitivity to errors, can be downloaded here.


Publications

2017-11
CRIS
H. Barfuss, M. Buerger, Jasper Podschus, W. Kellermann
   [link]   [doi]   [bib]

HRTF-based two-dimensional robust least-squares frequency-invariant beamformer design for robot audition
Joint Workshop on Hands-free Speech Communication and Microphone Arrays (HSCMA), Pages: 56-60, San Francisco, CA, Mar. 2017
2017-9
CRIS
Heinrich W. Löllmann, Alastair H. Moore, Patrick A. Naylor, Boaz Rafaely, Radu Horaud, Alexandre Mazel, W. Kellermann
   [link]   [bib]

Microphone Array Signal Processing for Robot Audition
Joint Workshop on Hands-free Speech Communication and Microphone Arrays (HSCMA), Pages: 1-5, Mar. 2017
2016-62 M. Buerger, T. Richter, M. Zhang, Heinrich W. Löllmann, W. Kellermann, A. Kaup, Yue Lang, Peter Grosche, Karim Helwani, Giovanni Cordara
   [bib]

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DRIVING AN ARRAY OF LOUDSPEAKERS WITH DRIVE SIGNALS
WO/2016/180493, Nov. 2016
2016-61 M. Buerger, Heinrich W. Löllmann, W. Kellermann, Peter Grosche, Yue Lang
   [bib]

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR DRIVING AN ARRAY OF LOUDSPEAKERS WITH DRIVE SIGNALS
WO/2016/165776 , Oct. 2016
2016-60 M. Buerger, Heinrich W. Löllmann, W. Kellermann, Karim Helwani, Peter Grosche, Yue Lang
   [bib]

APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR DRIVING AN ARRAY OF LOUDSPEAKERS
WO/2016/162058, Oct. 2016
2016-38
CRIS
H. Barfuss, M. Müglich, W. Kellermann
   [link]   [doi]   [bib]

HRTF-based Robust Least-Squares Frequency-Invariant Polynomial Beamforming
Int. Workshop on Acoustic Echo and Noise Control (IWAENC), Pages: 1-5, Sep. 2016
2016-16
CRIS
H. Barfuss, W. Kellermann
   [link]   [bib]

On the Impact of Localization Errors on HRTF-based Robust Least-Squares Beamforming
Jahrestagung für Akustik (DAGA), Pages: 1072-1075 , Aachen, Germany, Mar. 2016
2015-47
CRIS
H. Barfuss, C. Hümmer, A. Schwarz, W. Kellermann
   [link]   [bib]

Robust coherence-based spectral enhancement for distant speech recognition
available on arXiv.org, Dec. 2015
2015-31
CRIS
H. Barfuss, C. Hümmer, G. Lamani, A. Schwarz, W. Kellermann
   [link]   [doi]   [bib]

HRTF-based Robust Least-Squares Frequency-Invariant Beamforming
IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics (WASPAA), Pages: 1-5, New Paltz, NY, USA, Oct. 2015
2015-30
CRIS
M. Buerger, R. Maas, Heinrich W. Löllmann, W. Kellermann
   [bib]

Multizone Sound Field Synthesis Based on the Joint Optimization of the Sound Pressure and Particle Velocity Vector on Closed Contours
IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics (WASPAA), Pages: 1--5, New Paltz, NY, USA, Oct. 2015
2015-27
CRIS
M. Buerger, C. Hofmann, W. Kellermann
   [bib]

The Impact of Loudspeaker Array Imperfections and Reverberation on the Performance of a Multizone Sound Field Synthesis System
3rd International Conference on Spatial Audio (ICSA), Pages: 1--7, Graz, Austria, Sep. 2015
2015-18
CRIS
A. Schwarz, C. Hümmer, R. Maas, W. Kellermann
   [link]   [bib]

Real-Time Dereverberation for Deep Neural Network Speech Recognition
DAGA 2015, Pages: 139--142, Nürnberg, Germany, Mar. 2015
2015-17
CRIS
A. Schwarz, W. Kellermann
   [link]   [doi]   [bib]

Coherent-to-Diffuse Power Ratio Estimation for Dereverberation
IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing (IEEE TASLP) Vol. 23, Online Publication, Num. 6, Pages: 1006--1018, Apr. 2015
2015-4
CRIS
C. Anderson, S. Meier, W. Kellermann, P. Teal, M. Poletti
   [bib]

TRINICON-BSS System Incorporating Robust Dual Beamformers for Noise Reduction
IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Pages: 529--533 , Apr. 2015
2014-74
CRIS
E. Mabande
   [link]   [bib]

Robust Time-Invariant Broadband Beamforming as a Convex Optimization Problem
Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Apr. 2014
2014-61 W. Kellermann, K. Reindl, Y. Zheng
   [link]   [bib]

Method for evaluating a useful signal and audio device
WO002014162214A1, Oct. 2014
2014-60 M. Aubreville, E. Fischer, H. Kamkar Parsi, W. Kellermann, S. Meier, H. Puder, K. Reindl
   [link]   [bib]

Method for adjusting the useful signal in binaural hearing aid systems and hearing aid system
US020140314259A1, Oct. 2014
2014-59 M. Aubreville, E. Fischer, H. Kamkar Parsi, W. Kellermann, S. Meier, H. Puder, K. Reindl
   [link]   [bib]

Method for adapting useful signals in binaural hearing assistance systems
EP000002802158A2, Nov. 2014
2014-39
CRIS
K. Reindl, S. Meier, H. Barfuss, W. Kellermann
   [link]   [doi]   [bib]

Minimum Mutual Information-Based Linearly Constrained Broadband Signal Extraction
IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing (IEEE TASLP) Vol. 22, Num. 6, Pages: 1096-1108, Jun. 2014
2014-28
CRIS
A. Schwarz, W. Kellermann
   [pdf]   [link]   [bib]

Unbiased Coherent-to-Diffuse Ratio Estimation for Dereverberation
International Workshop on Acoustic Signal Enhancement (IWAENC), Pages: 6--10, Antibes - Juan les Pins, France, Sep. 2014
2014-21 A. Schwarz, Jae-Hoon Jeong, W. Kellermann
   [bib]

Blind signal seperation apparatus and Method for seperating blind signal thereof (암묵 신호 분리 장치 및 이의 암묵 신호 분리 방법)
1020120105276, Mar. 2014
2014-6
CRIS
A. Schwarz, Andreas Brendel, W. Kellermann
   [pdf]   [link]   [bib]

Coherence-based Dereverberation for Automatic Speech Recognition
Deutsche Jahrestagung für Akustik (DAGA), Pages: 525--526, Oldenburg, Germany, Mar. 2014
2014-4
CRIS
D. Markovic, K. Kowalczyk, F. Antonacci, C. Hofmann, A. Sarti, W. Kellermann
   [link]   [doi]   [bib]

Estimation of Acoustic Reflection Coefficients Through Pseudospectrum Matching
IEEE/ACM Trans. on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing Vol. 22, Num. 1, Pages: 125--137, Jan. 2014
2013-79
CRIS
E. Mabande, K. Kowalczyk, H. Sun, W. Kellermann
   [link]   [doi]   [bib]

Room geometry inference based on spherical microphone array eigenbeam processing
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (JASA) Vol. 134, Num. 4, Pages: 2773--2789, Oct. 2013
2013-51
CRIS
K. Reindl, S. Markovich-Golan, H. Barfuss, S. Gannot, W. Kellermann
   [doi]   [bib]

Geometrically Constrained TRINICON-based Relative Transfer Function Estimation in Underdetermined Scenarios
IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics (WASPAA), Pages: 1-4, New Paltz, NY, USA, Oct. 2013
2013-20
CRIS
K. Reindl, W. Kellermann
   [link]   [doi]   [bib]

Linearly-constrained multichannel interference suppression algorithms derived from a minimum mutual information criterion
IEEE China Summit and International Conference on Signal and Information Processing (ChinaSIP 2013), Pages: 283--287, Beijing, China, Jul. 2013
2012-79 H. Buchner, W. Herbordt, S. Spors, W. Kellermann
   [bib]

Apparatus and Method for Processing Continuous Wave Fields Propagated in a Room
US 8,218,774 B2, Num. US 8,218,774 B2, Jul. 2012
2012-66 W. Kellermann, K. Reindl, Y. Zheng
   [link]   [bib]

Method and acoustic signal processing system for interference and noise suppression in binaural microphone configurations
EP 2 395 506 B1, Aug. 2012
2012-39
CRIS
A. Schwarz, K. Reindl, W. Kellermann
   [link]   [bib]

On Blocking Matrix-Based Dereverberation for Automatic Speech Recognition
Int. Workshop on Acoustic Echo and Noise Control (IWAENC), Pages: 1--4, Aachen, Germany , Sep. 2012
2012-20
CRIS
H. Sun, W. Kellermann, E. Mabande, K. Kowalczyk
   [pdf]   [link]   [doi]   [bib]

Localization of distinct reflections in rooms using spherical microphone array eigenbeam processing
J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (JASA) Vol. 131, Num. 4, Pages: 2828--2840, Apr. 2012
2012-7
CRIS
A. Schwarz, K. Reindl, W. Kellermann
   [link]   [doi]   [bib]

A Two-Channel Reverberation Suppression Scheme based on Blind Signal Separation and Wiener Filtering
IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Pages: 113--116, Kyoto, Japan, Mar. 2012
2009-22
CRIS
E. Mabande, A. Schad, W. Kellermann
   [doi]   [bib]

Design of Robust Superdirective Beamformers as a Convex Optimization Problem
IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Pages: 77-80, Taipei, Taiwan, Apr. 2009