The challenge of sound source localization in acoustically complex environments has attracted widespread attention in the research community in recent years. The challenge of sound source localization in realistic environments has attracted widespread attention in the Audio and Acoustic Signal Processing (AASP) community in recent years. Source localization approaches in the literature address the estimation of positional information about acoustic sources using a pair of microphones, microphone arrays, or networks with distributed acoustic sensors. Despite the significant impact of sound source localization and tracking approaches, a comprehensive, objective benchmarking campaign of state-of-the-art algorithms is to date unavailable. The IEEE AASP Challenge on acoustic source LOCalization And TrAcking (LOCATA) aims at providing researchers in source localization with a framework to objectively benchmark results against competing algorithms using a common, publically released data corpus that encompasses a range of realistic scenarios in an enclosed acoustic environment.